3分鐘搞定 | 讓你具備托福沖百的思維及方法–寫作篇

By 學無界 Jason | 留學考試準備

4 月 15

以下轉貼托福老師分享的準備寫作考試衝高分的小秘訣,大家快收下啊!

各位同學,大家好!托福考試能夠上百是很多同學的目標,分解到寫作上,就需要同學們努力向25分這一目標邁進。但是,似乎這一目標並不是特別好實現。首先我先和大家分享兩個真實的案例。

在今年的一次考試中,學生A.B的寫作成績單後面的評價都是good。但是學生A 30分的滿分成績。而學生B則是 24分。那麼今天我們就結合ETS 的原始評分1-5分制來講解一下,為什麼明明學生AB都是兩個good,分數上卻有這麼大的區別呢?

首先在任務的回應程度上和文章組織上, 4 分作文的特點是:

address thetopic and the task well though some points may not be elaborated (不錯的完成任務,即使部分觀點沒有展開)

Displayprogression, unity, and coherence , though it may occur redundancy, digression,or unclear expressions (表現出統一性和推進力和凝聚力,但存在偶爾的冗余,偏題)

5分作文的評分標準:

Effectivelyaddresses the task (有效的解決話題)

Displayunity, progress and coherence ( 表現出統一性和推進力和凝聚力)

從上面的表述來看,如果從4-5 我們需要做的就是充分展開觀點,並且。但是充分展開和文章冗余如何去定義呢?下面我們就通過兩個官方給的範文片段來具體闡述:

4分的文章片段來感受下這一點:

On theother hand, adults should consider moving out when they are sure that they areready for it. Being ready includes being financially, physically, andpsychologically ready. One major advantage for staying with your parents isfinancially advantage. Because one gets to save money between the residency anddaily living issues.

5分作文的片段

Most young adults prefer to have a separateor independent life from their parents or families as soon as possible. This isbecause they have a strong urge for freedom in doing what they desire. But infact, many of them fail. This should not be surprising since often they areactually not ready mentally although they are physically ready. It is widelyunderstood that to live independently requires a lot of energy and is not easyat all. In this twenty first century, people may need more and more preparationbecause competition is increasing rapidly. An observation shows that manyUniversity graduated students are unemployed. Therefore, they will not be ableto support and fulfill their necessities.

這兩個段落同樣都是在討論年輕人是否能夠獨立生活。但是對比之下我們發現,第二個段落要比第一個段落展開更加具體,有具體的例子來進行支持,比如作者用了一個observation 的例子來支持前面的觀點,什麼導致現在年輕人不能夠獨立生活,而且文章邏輯緊湊可以十分有力的支持這一段的分論點。

相比之下第一個段落邏輯稍微跳躍,另外存在個別觀點解釋不清楚的問題,比如為什麼和父母住在一起可以幫助年輕人省錢。

在這一點上4分和5分分別的表述是

1. Displaysfacility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety and range ofvocabulary , though it will probably have occasional noticeable errors in thestructure, word form, or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere withmeaning 表現語言的應用能力,體現語言的多樣性,詞彙量,雖然可能會出現偶爾結構上,詞形上或用語上的錯誤,這些錯誤並不影響理解。

2. Demonstratessyntactic variety and appropriate word choice though it may have occasionalerrors

句式豐富,措辭合適,允許小的錯誤。

所以我們看到4分和5分之間比較關鍵的是一些不影響理解的小的語法錯誤,那什麼樣的錯誤可以稱作明顯的不影響理解的小的語法和用語上的錯誤?

我們看到官方在4分文章評價當中給到如下錯誤示範:

Some argues (主謂一致), living in their own (固定搭配使用錯誤), become independence (詞性錯誤),」諸如上面一些錯誤並沒有影響到文章的閱讀,但是如果我們要衝到滿分,大家要盡量減少此類問題的出現。

綜合寫作5分和4分都需要共同滿足評分標準: a response at this level is generally good in selecting informationfrom the lecture and incoherently and accurately presenting this information inrelation to relevant information in the reading 選擇聽力重要信息,以及展示此信息與閱讀之間的關係。

但是4分的文章當中出現了 如下問題:

It may have minor omission, inaccuracy,vagueness, or imprecision of some content from the lecture or in connection topoints made in the reading.可能有小的遺漏,不準確,模糊,或不精確的地方。

A response is scored at this level if ithas more frequent or noticeable minor language errors

所以我們看到從4分到5分很明顯會有一些表述不清楚或者文章出現了一些明顯的語法錯誤。

比如我們來看下面兩個分別來自4分和5分的段落

Secondly, paragraph suggests that bydoing work as a team might give you an edge, the lecture suggests that that might also be a negative thing aswell. The people who made themselves leaders in the group may just be wrong incertain decisions, or just simple thing something is so creative, when inreality it is not and it would not work, but the rest of the people wouldnevertheless still follow them, and end up not doing well at all.

Second, groups were slow in progress.The passage says that groups are more responsive than individuals because ofthe number of people involved and their aggregated resources. However, thespeaker talks about how the firm found out that groups were slower thanindividuals in decision making. Groups needed more time for meetings, which arenecessary procedures in decision making. This was another part where experiencecontradicted theory.

對比之下,我們發現第一段出現一些語言表述的問題,根據官方給的評價,第一段的最後一句出現理解困難,也就是評分標準裡面提到的imprecision of some content from the lecture.

通過以上討論,我們可以得到結論,如果要衝破托福百分大關,寫作達到25+,那麼從獨立的角度來說,需要減少文章的語言錯誤,另外要注意段落的闡述和文章的整體推進。綜合寫作注意增加聽力細節和閱讀關係以及注意語言表述的問題。

About the Author

Jason從事教育顧問的工作已有10年的經驗, 從2007年入行, 多年的顧問經驗告訴我, 沒有最好的某種教育產品, 只有最適合的生涯規劃. 服務, 該提供給真正有需要的人, 這一直是Jason以助人的角度出發, 持續堅持在教育顧問服務產業的目標, 如果你正好在選擇教育產品上很徬徨, 何不與我們聊聊?